Sadaqah al-fitr (Fitrana) for Muslims in Britain
Wifaqul Ulama Iftaa (Department)
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh (Peace, Blessings & Mercy of Allah be upon You).
This statement is being issued on the 01st of May 2017 and supersedes all previous statements on the subject.
This ruling is based on the Hanafi Madhab which is followed by a large number of Muslims in Britain. There are variances in the calculations for other Schools of Jurisprudence, please contact your local Mosque for details. It is our opinion that £2.00/per person should sufficiently discharge the obligation of Fitrana for Ramadhan 1438 (2017).
What is Sadaqah al-fitr (Fitrana)?
It is a special kind of charity which is an obligation upon all Muslims during the month of Ramadhan. It purifies the fasting person from any indecent act or speech. In the Hanafi Madhab, it is an obligation upon every male and female Muslim who possesses any assets surplus to basic needs. Each male and female Muslim is responsible to give Fitrana when they are (financially) eligible to do so. If the husband gives it on behalf of his wife or (mature) children, it will be discharged even if done without their permission. Father (or a guardian) will need to discharge the obligation on behalf of minor children.
Where and how should it be given?
It is the unanimous opinion of Scholars that since it is a special (kind) of charity, it cannot be given to any charitable cause. Fitrana must be treated like Zakah and spent on causes which are appropriate for the Zakah.
Please perform the due diligence and ensure that Fitrana is donated to a cause or charity which has controls in places to spend your donation as Zakah.
When should it be given?
It becomes compulsory to pay the Fitrana with the break of dawn on the day of Eid. Fitrana can be discharged before Ramadhan, but it is cautious to pay it after Ramadhan has started and it is Mustahab (preferable) to pay after Subh-Sadiq (true dawn) on the day of Eidul-Fitr. Since the purpose is to benefit the poor, it is ideal to pay it before the actual Eid prayers thus allowing enough time for it to reach the poor and the needy.
What is the classical amount of Sadaqah al-fitr (Fitrana)?
The textual basis for Fitrana is in a number of sayings of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him). Primary evidences are as follows:
Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar (RA) narrates, ‘Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) enjoined the payment of one Saa’ of dates or one Saa’ of barley as Zakat-ul-fitr on every Muslim slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the ‘Eid prayer.’ [Al-Bukhari]
Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar (RA) reports that Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) instructed us to give Sadaqah al-fitr of one saa’ of dates or one saa’ of barley. Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar mentions that the Sahabah later gave two mud (½ Sa’) of wheat in place of dates and barley. [Al-Bukhari]
The classical and modern equivalent of these measures are as follows as understood in the Hanafi Madhab 1 :
- Wheat: The classical amount is ½ Saa, it is equivalent to approximately 1.667 Kilograms;
- Barley: The classical amount is 1 Saa, it is equivalent to approximately 3.334 Kilograms;
- Raisins: The classical amount is 1 Saa, it is equivalent to approximately 3.334 Kilograms;
- Dates: The classical amount is 1 Saa, it is equivalent to approximately 3.334 Kilograms.
In the Hanafi Madhab, the cash equivalent (or retaill value) can be given instead of the actual grain itself. 2
It is our opinion that the flour made by grinding the uncooked cereal grains is the same as the grain itself when calculating Fitrana. Many of our colleagues and contemporary Scholars disagree and believe that the cash equivalent of the grain itself (and not the flour) should be considered. This explains the variance in Fitrana amount set by Mosques and Institutions in Britain. This year we have taken the view of our colleagues for calculating the Fitrana amount, although if a person calculates based on flour, the obligation will be discharged.
What is the cash equivalent of Sadaqah al-fitr (Fitrana) in Britain for Ramadhan 2017?
It is our opinion that £2.00/per person should sufficiently discharge the obligation of Fitrana for Ramadhan 1438 (2017). This amount covers the various differences of opinions amongst contemporary British Scholars. It will be praiseworthy and virtuous to give an amount higher than the minimum amount suggested by us.
Local Scholars may differ based on local prices, we have taken a National view and our recommendation is for all Muslims in Britain. The field research was conducted across various cities of United Kingdom and we have considered all prices and used the best approximated possible.
|Item||Price (Per KG) [£]||Weight (KG)||Fitrana (Amount) [£]|
What is Fidya (for missing Fasts) and what is the amount?
If a person is ill to such an extent that they are unable to fast, they are excused from fasting. When they recover from illness, they will be expected to make Qadha i.e. make up the missed fasts. If the illness is permanent and/or terminal and there is no hope of recovery, they must pay Fidya for each missed fast. The value of Fidya is the same as Fitrana.
If the reason for missing the fasts is removed (i.e. the person recovers) it will not be permissible to pay Fidya and Qadha of the missed fasts needs to be done. If the person is near death and unable to make Qadha (of the missed fasts), it will be obligatory to make a will for the Fidya to be paid for the missed fasts. It is sinful to not make a will for Fidya to be made for the missed fasts.
If after giving the Fidya, the person recovers and regains enough strength to fast then they will be expected to make Qadha i.e. make up the missed fasts. The Fidya given will be counted as Nafil (optional charity) and will be a means of rewards since the fasts have been made up. Fidya must be given during Ramadhan but the person has the choice to give it in the beginning of the month or can give it altogether in the end.
- (Shaykhul-Hadeeth) Ayub Bande Ilahi
- (Maulana) Marghgoob Ahmed Lajpuri
- (Mufti) Yusuf Sacha
- (Mufti) Ismail Kacholvi
- (Mufti) Musa Badat
- (Mufti) Zubair Dudha
- (Qari) Muhammad Shoyaib Nurgat
- (Mufti) Mohammed Ashfaq
- (Mufti) Zakariyya Akudi
- (Maulana) Yusuf Mama
- (Mufti) Yusuf Danka
- (Mufti) Amjad Mohammed
- (Qadhi) Imran Sayed
- (Maulana) Ahmad Sarkar
- (Mufti) Amin Pandor
- (Maulana) Hashim Sacha
- (Maulana) Mohammed Saeed Mulla
- (Maulana) Hashim Rawat
- (Maulana) Yusuf Akudi
- (Maulana) Suliman Bodiyat
- (Maulana) Shabbir Seedat
- (Maulana) Abdul-Hai Seedat
- (Maulana) Musa Gora
- (Maulana) Mushtaq Balakhdi
- (Mufti) Javed Pathan
- (Mufti) Abidur-Rahman Molvi
- (Maulana) Abdul-Awwal Molvi
- (Maulana) Mohammed Farook Kazi
- (Maulana) Imran Lunat
- (Maulana) Afzal Wali Mulla
- (Maulana) Sulaiman Makda
- (Maulana) Tariq Mahmood
- (Maulana) Fareed Patel
- (Maulana) Iftikhar Hussain
- (Maulana) Yousaf Baig
- (Maulana) Sohail Bawa
- (Maulana) Habibullah Munshi
- (Maulana) Suliman Gani
- (Maulana) Irfan Soni
- (Maulana) Ibraheem Patel
- (Maulana) Arif Polli
- (Maulana) Imtiaz Kamal
- (Maulana) Amin Sadak
- (Maulana) Nausarka
- Widely circulated, reviewed and endorsed by many other British Scholars.
Frequently Asked Questions?
What is the amount which you have set for United Kingdom?
We deem Fitrana/Fidya to be £2.00 per person for Ramadhan 1438 (2017).
When should I pay it?
Fitrana should be discharged ideally after Ramadhan has started and before Subh-Sadiq (true dawn) on the day of Eidul-Fitr. Since the purpose is to benefit the poor, it is ideal to pay it before the actual Eid prayers. It is even better to ensure that the funds reach the needy before Eidul-Fitr and in advance for them to make good use of the donations.
Where did you conduct your research for obtaining the prices for this press release?
We conducted our research and checked the prices in London, Leicester, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Cardiff, Blackburn, Batley, Dewsbury and Glasgow.
How did you then reach the decision of setting the rates for United Kingdom?
We looked at the highest (retail) price for Wheat across all the cities in our research, took the price of £1.18/KG and then multiplied it by 1.667 KG. We then rounded the figure to £2.00.
Have you looked at and reviewed the research of other British Ulama on the topic?
Alhumdolillah, there is good work and cooperation between Scholars in our country. We have shared our findings with our Ulama and they have shared their findings with us. Scholars may have differences (of opinions) but we all work together for the benefit of British Muslims.
I don’t live in United Kingdom but can I use your Fitrana?
No, we recommend that you consult your local Scholars and seek their advice. Local research in the country of your residence should be conducted, you can use the template as the basis of your research.
What if I wish to pay with the actual grain rather than the cash equivalent?
The actual calculations are based on Grain so your obligation will be discharged and it will be superior. In United Kingdom it is hard to find people who accept Grain (instead of Cash) but if you have found an organisation or individuals who deal in (actual) Grain, please proceed.
Why have you set the amount to be so low? Why didn’t you use a higher estimate?
Fitrana is used not only for Ramadhan but also for Fidya. Therefore, the needs of individual vary and we cannot set exorbitantly high amounts as it may cause undue hardship.
What is the primary factor in some communities having a Fitrana which is much lower than yours?
There is a difference of opinion amongst Ulama if wheat flour or (actual) wheat grain should be used for Fitrana. This year after extensive discussions with Scholars, we have opted to use wheat (grain) for the determination of Fitrana to avoid confusion for the Muslims in Britain.
We have adopted the opinion of our colleagues and contemporaries although we still believe that using wheat (flour) instead of what (grain) is the better opinion. British Muslims primarily use wheat (flour) in their households and not many families buy wheat (grain) and then grind it into flour.
It is also possible that in some localities in Britain the price for wheat grain is significantly cheaper. We have attempted to address the issue at a National level.
What is the primary factor in some communities having a Fitrana which is much higher than yours?
In addition to the difference highlighted above, Ulama have also differed upon the weight of ½ Saa. The estimates of Ulama range from 1.106 KG to 2.32 KG. It is possible that Ulama in other communities have opted for a higher value.
Why do Ulama differ in interpreting the weight of ½ Saa or 1 Saa?
½ Saa or 1 Saa is a measurement of a container (i.e. three dimensional space or volume). Imagine that you were asked to fill a box with wheat and then another person was asked to fill a box with wheat. If the sizes of the boxes are different, the volume of wheat in each container will be different. Today, we measure wheat in weight and we know what 1 KG or 100 KG of wheat means. The honourable and respected Ulama interpret the volume (of the container) used in the blessed times of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon Him) differently therefore the weight (of grain) inside the container is also interpreted differently.
Does the price for wheat differ siginificantly in Britain?
Yes. We found the wholesale price for 20 KG to be around 0.60/KG but wheat (grain) is not a high volume (sale item) within the Muslim community. Retailers add a profit margin depending on the location and sale opportunity.It is the retail price which needs to be considered for calculations.
Why didn’t you adopt 2.32 KG for ½ Saa as it is the highest value for caution?
In our opinion it is too high and ½ Saa cannot be equal to 2.32 KG. We understand the respect the opinion of Ulama who have adopted this opinion but we deem it to be high. We cannot adopt a value simply because it happens to be the highest value, there has to be a valid Shariah reason for the weight. Moreover, since Fitrana is also Fidya we believe that setting it too high may cause unnecessary hardship.
What will happen if I (still) choose to use wheat (flour) to pay my Fitrana?
We believe that using wheat flour (instead of) wheat (grain) for the determination of Fitrana is permissible, therefore your obligation will be discharged.
What will happen if I choose to use the cheapest flour price which is locally available to me?
Your obligation will be discharged.
I think that your estimates are too low and it should be higher, what should I do?
Fitrana is given on wheat (flour), wheat (grain), barley, raisins and dates. Masha’Allah, if Allah Ta’ala has given you (financial) abundance, use the most expensive dates and you should pay your Fitrana using it as a financial estimate.
- محمد عن يعقوب عن أبي حنيفة ( رضي الله عنهم ) في صدقة الفطر قال فيه نصف صاع من بر أو دقيق أو سويق أو زبيب أو صاع من تمر أو صاع من شعير وقال أبو يوسف ومحمد ( رحمهما الله ) الزبيب بمنزلة الشعير وروى الحسن بن زياد ( رحمه الله ) في المجرد عن أبي حنيفة رضي الله عنه انه قال صاع من زبيب مثل قولهما ↩
- فَإِنْ أَعْطَى قِيمَةَ الْحِنْطَةِ جَازَ عِنْدَنَا ; لِأَنَّ الْمُعْتَبَرَ حُصُولُ الْغِنَى وَذَلِكَ يَحْصُلُ بِالْقِيمَةِ كَمَا يَحْصُلُ بِالْحِنْطَةِ ، وَعِنْدَ الشَّافِعِيِّ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى لَا يَجُوزُ ، وَأَصْلُ الْخِلَافِ فِي الزَّكَاةِ وَكَانَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ الْأَعْمَشُ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ : أَدَاءُ الْحِنْطَةِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ أَدَاءِ الْقِيمَةِ ; لِأَنَّهُ أَقْرَبُ إلَى امْتِثَالِ الْأَمْرِ وَأَبْعَدُ عَنْ اخْتِلَافِ الْعُلَمَاءِ فَكَانَ الِاحْتِيَاطُ فِيهِ ، وَكَانَ الْفَقِيهُ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ : أَدَاءُ الْقِيمَةِ أَفْضَلُ ; لِأَنَّهُ أَقْرَبُ إلَى مَنْفَعَةِ الْفَقِيرِ فَإِنَّهُ يَشْتَرِي بِهِ لِلْحَالِ مَا يَحْتَاجُ إلَيْهِ ، وَالتَّنْصِيصُ عَلَى الْحِنْطَةِ وَالشَّعِيرِ كَانَ ; لِأَنَّ الْبِيَاعَاتِ فِي ذَلِكَ الْوَقْتِ بِالْمَدِينَةِ يَكُونُ بِهَا فَأَمَّا فِى دِيَارِنَا الْبِيَاعَاتُ تُجْرَى بِالنُّقُودِ ، وَهِيَ أَعَزُّ الْأَمْوَالِ فَالْأَدَاءُ مِنْهَا أَفْضَلُ ( ص: 108) ↩