Sinner and Moonsighting

Moonsighting and Faasiq

(Qari) Muhammad Shoyaib Nurgat

(Maulana) Yousuf Baig

Question: In Islamic law, the testimony of a Faasiq (sinner) is rejected. What steps does Wifaqul Ulama take to ensure that the person testifying to have sighted the Moon is not a Faasiq?

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh

We would like to begin by extending our gratitude to you for asking this question. May Allah (SWT) give you the best of rewards (Ameen).

In a nutshell and according to the principles of Hanafi Madhab, the testimony of a Faasiq can be accepted if the testimony is deemed to be accurate and correct. The testimony of an upright Muslim can be rejected if it is deemed to be inaccurate. It is up to the Qadhi or the head the Moonsighting committee. We did not find this principle in the Madhab that we have to investigate the Fisq of the one testifying about the Moon in the Madhab.

Allamah Muhammad Amin Ibn Abidin (RA) [1783-1836] writes in Radd al-Muhtar ala ad-Dur al-Mukhtar and it is then commented upon in the Marginalia:

 

وَالْعَدَالَةُ لِوُجُوبِهِ ) فِي الْيَنَابِيعِ : الْعَدْلُ مَنْ لَمْ يُطْعَنْ عَلَيْهِ فِي بَطْنٍ وَلَا فَرْجٍ وَمِنْهُ الْكَذِبُ لِخُرُوجِهِ مِنْ الْبَطْنِ ( لَا لِصِحَّتِهِ ) خِلَافًا لِلشَّافِعِيِّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَنْهُ ( فَلَوْ قَضَى [ ص: 466 ] بِشَهَادَةِ فَاسِقٍ نَفَذَ ) وَأَثِمَ فَتْحٌ ( إلَّا أَنْ يَمْنَعَ مِنْهُ ) أَيْ مِنْ الْقَضَاءِ بِشَهَادَةِ الْفَاسِقِ ( الْإِمَامُ فَلَا ) يَنْفُذُ لِمَا مَرَّ أَنَّهُ يَتَأَقَّتُ وَيَتَقَيَّدُ بِزَمَانٍ وَمَكَانٍ وَحَادِثَةٍ وَقَوْلٍ مُعْتَمَدٍ حَتَّى لَا يَنْفُذَ قَضَاؤُهُ بِأَقْوَالٍ ضَعِيفَةٍ

( قَوْلُهُ بِشَهَادَةِ فَاسِقٍ نَفَذَ ) قَالَ فِي جَامِعِ الْفَتَاوَى : وَأَمَّا شَهَادَةُ الْفَاسِقِ ، فَإِنْ تَحَرَّى الْقَاضِي الصِّدْقَ فِي شَهَادَتِهِ تُقْبَلُ وَإِلَّا فَلَا ا هـ فَتَّالٌ : وَفِي الْفَتَاوَى الْقَاعِدِيَّةِ : هَذَا إذَا غَلَبَ عَلَى ظَنِّهِ صِدْقُهُ وَهُوَ مِمَّا يُحْفَظُ دُرَرٌ أَوَّلَ كِتَابِ الْقَضَاءِ ، وَظَاهِرُ قَوْلِهِ وَهُوَ مِمَّا يُحْفَظُ اعْتِمَادُهُ

Imam Kasani (RA) has also written in Bada’i al-Sana’i:

وَأَمَّا قَوْلُهُ : ” الرُّكْنُ فِي الشَّهَادَةِ هُوَ صِدْقُ الشَّاهِدِ ” فَنَعَمْ ، لَكِنَّ الصِّدْقَ لَا يَقِفُ عَلَى الْعَدَالَةِ لَا مَحَالَةَ ، فَإِنَّ مِنْ الْفَسَقَةِ مَنْ لَا يُبَالِي بِارْتِكَابِهِ أَنْوَاعًا مِنْ الْفِسْقِ ، وَيَسْتَنْكِفُ عَنْ الْكَذِبِ ، وَالْكَلَامُ فِي فَاسِقٍ تَحَرَّى الْقَاضِي الصِّدْقَ فِي شَهَادَتِهِ فَغَلَبَ عَلَى ظَنِّهِ صِدْقُهُ – وَلَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ كَذَلِكَ – لَا يَجُوزُ الْقَضَاءُ بِشَهَادَتِهِ عِنْدَنَا .

 

 

 

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